Categories

3rd Year Subject Research

Ski Goggles Future forecasting

Polarized ski goggles

The future forecasting adding augmented tech to be implemented into ski goggles as a method of increasing the experience of skiing on a mountain. This is done through adding sensors onto the actual ski goggles itself mostly motion sensors. This essentially creates images on to the actual skii goggles that shows a the best route to take and also gives you directions for lifts and other areas .

Taking a somewhat same route as the googles glass ski goggle are starting to develop into more advanced pieces of technology. This can be supported with the development of adding sensors and other factors to improve the skiing experience .

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3rd Field Research

 

Medicine shelf

Features

  • 360° revolving pill organiser for easy viewing and pill selection
  • Organise all your medicine with over 31 portable daily pill holders
  • Monthly pill organiser & space saver combats forgetfulness
  • No more messy countertops or cluttered cabinets, just tidy organised medication
  • Never forget to take your meds again

 

Future forecasting

Currently Millions are being spent in trying to develop a cure for HIV and are trying to prevent the virus from activating. Within the next 15 years or so there should be a functioning vaccine that can remove the HIV virus from users.

Also in terms of allowing the influences of condoms to be allowed into the country could become more beneficial due to the recent effects of the pope saying that the use of condoms can be now justified to the point that it is allowed to be used to the mass Christianity group in Africa.

 

http://www.treatmentactiongroup.org/tagline/2015/spring/hiv-cure-and-vaccine-within-next-15-years

 

Methods of transporting goods

 

First idea

Developing packing that’s also work as packing for other goods (such as Coca cola bottles) this will save the cost of transporting goods or services. This idea is purely to maximise the cost of transporting goods into Africa utilizing the unused space used in transporting in goods to allow cheaper cost in product.

This idea requires the development of allowing a target market of large companies who import a lot of products into Sub-Saharan Africa and hopefully their product can be adapted to allow enough to store their products as well as the medicine required for the users.  Soft drinks companies require there vehicles to be refrigerated allowing the medicines to not be spoiled once arrived .

Can act as a marketing campaign as well for coca cola.

There are 15 available spaces in between the coca cola bottles

Similar concept I am trying to take into actions

 

The benefits of this design

  • Fits well with the concept of the purpose
  • Can be easily be removed without any external components
  • Shows the target market very clearly
  • Clean cut design
  • The design seems to be easily able to be massed produced with out hassle

The disadvantages of the design

  • There is still a lot of space that can be potentailly used
  • The design of the packaging is very unclear on what is does
  • Must open the packaging in order to receive instructuion
  • The images on the front make it seem the product is only for small infants
  • The product once removed from external transport can not be preserved long
  • The design would not show it was medicine so may get confused and misinterapt with something else

 

Refridgration of goods when transporting

Most common way of transporting goods at a low temp will be trucks/motor vehicles . There are over 60000 refrigerated trucks active in the EU and they are split up in severval groups.

  • small converted vans (up to 3.5 tonnes, for example for catering or ice cream distribution),
  • rigid vehicles (trucks, up to 32 tonnes) and
  • articulated vehicles (up to 44 tonnes), which are used for the majority of refrigerated road transportation operations. Articulated vehicles over 33 tonnes, account for around 80% of the total tonne-km goods movement in the UK

 

Popular methods of Disbution in Africa

 

Lack of contraception’s in Africa

Contraceptions

Condoms should be stored at room temperature (68-77oF or 20-25oC) – not in extreme heat or cold – and away from moisture, direct sunlight and direct fluorescent light.  Don’t store condoms in a glove compartment, trunk, wallet, back pocket or any other place where the temperature and humidity can damage them. And don’t use them after the expiration date, because old condoms can be dry, brittle or weakened and prone to break.

When trying to preserve Condoms :

  • Don’t not store condoms in any humid areas for example wallet, pocket or trunks
  • Don’t not store in any Extreme heat or cold
  • Do not use after the expiration date
  • Do not expose to direct sunlight or fluorescent light
  • Should be preserved at temperatures of  (68-77oF or 20-25oC)

Different kinds of contraception’s

For Males :

  • Condoms
  • Abstinence
  • Outer course
  • Vasectomy
  • Withdrawal

For Females:

  • Caps
  • Combined pill
  • Female Condom
  • Diaphragms
  • (IUD) Intrauterine Device
  • (IUS) Intrauterine system
  • Vaginal ring
  • Natural family planning
  • Progestogen Pill

Product Autopsy

Cardboard packaging

To produce a product that can help distribute medical goods into Africa without compromising the medical goods by the extreme heat complication that occur with some medical goods.

References

http://www.wired.com/2013/06/how-to-design-a-life-saving-device/

https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/383861568210764293/

https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/education-materials/glossary/513/non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/the-pope/8148944/The-Pope-drops-Catholic-ban-on-condoms-in-historic-shift.html

 
Female condom

 

  • Dimension 120mm , 80mm
  • Receiving mixed reviews about the product
  • Customer feedback indicates that the product is very uncomfortable and not worth the trouble and use
  • Less popular and unware this was a market for women
  • The packaging shows elements of female dominants in the design
  • The instructions are confusing and not particularly designed well

Zimbabwe as a main target

 

Sovereign state  is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states

Area

Climate : Tropical Climate

Culture : Results from

Religion

Population Male to female Ration:

13

Imports :The main imports within this country is south Africa providing simple goods such as rice food and other goods and services ( Develop the research further within this section )

History

Economic: almost 90% of the population do not have access to medical aid and also the country do not have any medical insurance ,Despite government promising medical insurance

The Government has allocated $301 million pounds towards the health sector, with a population of 13million this means that they intend to only spend around $22 dollars per person in Zimbabwe.

Health care system :

Free of charge for certain people ,pregnant women/ lactating mothers, children under the ages of 5 and people who are over the age of 60 all have access to free health care

10 million annual health care budget ( lacking government funding )

Questionnaire results

People who used a condom with a Martial partner

African results for Zimbabwe

Year : 1999

Representative : National

Gender : Both

Age group : 15-49

Sample size : 2,010

Sexually Experienced : 1,637

Implementing Organisation : Target research LTD

Funded By : USAID

Culture of using condoms can be identified through an  organisation that did a survey on the development of contraception’s in several areas within Africa  .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3 results Women who used a condom last with a regular partner

 

 

 

This research indicates that the main issue of the use of contraception in the sub-Haran regions is not due an issue of arability but the social aspects of the condoms creating distrust between partners and causing conflict between each other by creating distrust.

The fact that consumer who have the HIV virus are considered outsiders and a can be shunned by the community so the use of contraception can be considered a taboo and cause suspicion that you may have the virus.

 

 

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe has the fifth highest HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa at 15%. 1.4 million people are living with HIV including 170,000 children, equating to 4% of the global

170,000 children who are born with the HIV

 

Countries Icon

The famous soapstone bird carvings stood on walls and monoliths of the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe that was built, it is believed, sometime between the 12th and the 15th centuries by ancestors of the Shona. The ruins, which gave their name to modern Zimbabwe, cover some 1,800 acres (7.3 km)

bateleur eagle

The bateleur (Terathopius ecaudatus) is a medium-sized eagle in the family Accipitridae. Its closest relatives are the snake eagles. It is the only member of the genus Terathopius and may be the origin of the “Zimbabwe Bird“, national emblem of Zimbabwe.[2] It is endemic to Africa and small parts of Arabia. “Bateleur” is French for “Street Performer”.[3]

Coca cola life project Timeline

The reason why the project was developed was due to the fact that coca cola was in large supply everywhere in developing countries however having essentials such as medicine be scarce .

So the project was to develop packing/product to be implemented into the unused space in between coca cola bottles in order to disperse the required medications to a wider range of consumers within the developing areas .

1985-

Noticing the problem with the death rate in Africa due to common illnesses such as dehydration and ? (example of this would be that 1 in 9 children die from dehydration and ?)

The public sectors struggling to maintain a reliable supply of drugs/medications to the health facilities.

2008-

Gordons browns business all to actions, this allowed the project to become a reality with finaical support , Facebook group had started to develop during this time. Nov 2008 Coca cola workshop in Tanzania “Aid Pods” be Jane Berrys ( Additional research required)

2011-

Started distruputing to cape town partnership and trade plans in place .December 2011 COTZ start (setup phrase)

2012-

March 2012 Finalised the kit Yamoyos  design

2013-

August 2013 COTZ 12 month trial period, October incorporating the learning into the scale up

Ors reduce number of zinc

Allowing the production of goods to be develop to a format in which allows the production of the product to be produced within the Africa area .


3rd Year Field Research

The Vaccine storage system a device that can hold over 200 routine vaccination for children in need of aid.  The design does not only functions as a means of preserving much needed medication but also is structurally designed to store in a format in which the design is structurally stable.

The features the design has:

  • The cost of the product is around £1000 making the cost of per dosage much lower than normal.
  • The design allows easy access to the required medication for users
  • The blue containers with in the product can contain 16 dosages, that can remain frozen for 35 days
  • The prototype helped preserve the medication for 90+ days

Results for the amount of people who use contraception


3rd Year Field Research

Storing any medication over 86 degrees will decrease the potency and the effects of the drug and with HIV if there any fluctuations in the treatment process due to the poor storage methods used will cause negative effects to their health.

Peak offered some specific tips for keeping medications safe and cool in the summer months:

  • Do not place medications in an area of sunlight (especially not in a windowsill)
  • Do not store medications in an area of high humidity (for example, avoid storing in a bathroom with a shower or bathtub, or in a kitchen cabinet near the dishwasher)
  • If possible, store medications in the coolest area of the house (potentially a basement or a “power room” without windows)
  • Take a minute to look at your medications before you take them. If they are stuck together in the bottle, if they have any changes in form or shape, or coating appears different or “runny” — the integrity of the medication may have been compromised. (However, note: you often cannot tell there is a problem just by looking. If you can visually see a change, the integrity is likely to be compromised, but the opposite isn’t true. There can still be a decrease in potency/effectiveness even if you can’t see a notable difference in the outside of the product.)

The culture of contraception’s

The main concern with the people of Africa is that they have having unprotected sex due to the lack of contraception’s given to them and ignoring that fact that Africa has the highest fertility in the world but the STDS that are spread through the lack of Condoms used has been a cause of concern.

By increasing the amount of contraception’s used in Africa will help decrease the deaf rate due to birthing process and reduce the amount of STDS and HIVS to be spread through either through sex or you already having the virus and transferring the virus to your offspring.

Due to the lack of education given to the people of Africa some of the locals have not been informed by the different protection methods used for sex.

In Africa the most common means of contraception’s is birth control even though the pill is not as available to them as they wish.

73% of the country was offered condoms

65% was offered the pill

54% was offered IUD


3rd Year Field Research

HIV/Aids  

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that cause AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) This disease attacks the immune system of the host, causing a progressive failure at the end.

There are 33 million people affected with the HIV/Aids Virus and 65 percent are from Sub-Saharan Africa. One of the reasons why HIV/AIDS has become such a problem in Africa is due to the lack of contraception’s provided into the community. Other methods of HIV being contracted to people is by the sharing needles between infected users as well as unsterilized equipment used during the birthing process.

 

 

 

Treatment of HIV/AIDS

 

First steps when trying to treat HIV

You will require a few test before any medication is given to the patient, this helps regulate the potential amount the patient will require and ensure the right dosage is given to the patients to not cause any more problems needed.

These test can include:

  • Urine test
  • Test for any other potential STDS
  • Blood count / Blood History
  • Test for any other infection that may occur due to low immune system
  • Checks and test to see whether or not you are sensitive to certain medicine
  • Test to see whether you are effected by a certain type of HIV medication

Overview of the treatment required to treat HIV

HIV treatments uses a wide combination of medication in order to fight the HIV infection. This is process is called ART Antiretroviral Therapy. The ART method does not cure HIV but prevents oncoming death and creates a healthier lifestyle by making the users less infectious to others. Art is a combination of medication that’s is given to the users every day. When the HIV virus is left untreated the HIV will develop into AIDS.

There are Six Different Class of drugs given to fight the HIV virus:

  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
  • Fusion inhibitors
  • CCR5 antagonists (CCR5s)
  • Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs)

(NNRTIs)

Antiretroviral HIV drug class, the NNRTIs bind to and black the HIV Reverse transcriptase (an HIV enzyme). HIV uses reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA. Blocking reverse transcriptase and reverse transcription prevents HIV from replicating.

(NRTIs)

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) block reverse transcriptase (an HIV enzyme). HIV uses reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA (reverse transcription). Blocking reverse transcriptase and reverse transcription prevents HIV from replicating.

Protease Inhibitor (PI)

PI block protease, by blocking protease, PIs prevent new (immature) HIV from becoming a Mature virus that can infect other CD4 cells.

Fusion inhibitors

The fusion Inhibitor blocks the HIV envelope from merging with the host CD$ membrane (fusion). This prevents HIV from entering the CD4 cell.

(CCR5s)

CCR5 antagonists block the CCR5 coreceptor on the surface of the certain immune cells, such as CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4 cells). This prevents HIV from entering the cell.

(INSTIs)

Integrase strand transfer inhibitors block intergrase. HIV uses integrase to insert its viral DNA into the DNA of the host CD4 cell. Blocking integrase prevents HIV from replicating.

The six drug classes also include 25 more HIV medicines that are approved to treat HIV infection. Some HIV medicines are available in combinations (in other words two or more different HIV medicines are combined in one pill).

 

Choosing the Right HIV regimen

  • Whether or not the person has more than one disease
  • Possible side effects of HIV medicines
  • Potential interactions between HIV medicines or between HIV medicines and other medicines the person with HIV is taking
  • Results of drug resistance the consumer may have
  • Convenience of the regimen. Having medication have a combination of the two
  • Any issues that can make following HIV regimen difficult, Busy lifestyle
  • Cost of HIV medicines

 

Drug Name (Brand Name) Cost of Brand Name Cost of Generic Number of tablets Strength
Etravirine (Intelence) $1,028-$1,112 No generic available. 60 200 mg
Efavirenz (Sustiva) $863-$965 No generic available. 90 200 mg
Nevirapine (Viramune) $770-$852 $15-$267 60 200 mg
Lamivudine/Zidovudine (Combivir) $922-$994 $344-$749* 60 150 mg/300 mg
Emtricitabine and tenofovir (Truvada) $1,309-$1,411 No generic available. 30 200 mg/300 mg
Abacavir (Ziagen) $600-$619 $234-$438 60 300 mg
Fosamprenavir (Lexiva) $1,021-$1,113 No generic available. 60 700 mg
Ritonavir (Norvir) $530-$586 (Available as a capsule and tablet.) No generic available. 30 100 mg
Darunavir (Prezista) $1,279-$1,383* No generic available. 30 800 mg
Atazanavir (Reyataz) $1,288-$1,393* No generic available. 30 300 mg
Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) $3,172-$3,434 No generic available. 1 kit 90 mg (60 vials)
Maraviroc (Selzentry) $2,458-$2,660 No generic available. 120 300 mg
Raltegravir (Isentress) $1,224-$1,325* No generic available. 60 400 mg
Abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine (Triumeq) $2,237-$2,422 No generic available. 30 600 mg/50 mg/300 mg

3rd year Field Research

Location/Background

Location of product is Sub Saharan Africa

Weather/Climate

  • Hottest temperature in Africa Located in the Sahara Desert 57.8C (136.F)
  • The temperatures changes dramatically during the day and night cycle
  • Lack of water in the are Due to the dry Hot weather

Location/Culture

  • 47 Countries

Diseases

  • STDs
  • Syphilis
  • Meningitis
  • Tetanus
  • Whooping cough
  • Measles
  • Tuberculosis
  • Diarrhoea
  • Malaria
  • Hiv/Aids
  • Pneumonia

 

 

 

Top 10 Deadly Diseases in Sub-Haran Africa

 

 

  1. Pneumonia
  2. HIV/AIDS
  3. Malaria
  4. Diarrhoea
  5. Tuberculosis
  6. Measles
  7. Whooping cough
  8. Tetanus
  9. Meningitis
  10. Syphilis

 

 

The arrival of nearly $10 million worth of donated antimalarial drugs in the small West African country of Togo starting in 2005 should have been fantastic news for the hundreds of thousands of impoverished people who fall sick with malaria there each year.

 

Culture in Sub-Saharan Africa

 

The most popular manufacturing method Africa are capable of using with their limited resources. By knowing this could potentially create an area of work and less cost in the of production without the need for the cost of transporting goods.

The language spoken in the urban areas of Africa is a mixture of English and Afrikaans but there are indications of Khoisan language which involves a variation of clicks and that do not belong any other family. However there an even smaller groups within Africa uses endangered languages.

The religions that resides with in Africa contain a variation of Christianity Hindu and Muslim.

Some part of Africa do not have any access to electrical goods and service as well as fresh water meaning quite a large majority of Africa still require the use of conventional cooking methods such as wood and charcoal in order to cook there food and boil their water.

Gender roles

The gender roles within a African society still remain uneven when comparing men to women and having women considered as the less important, but do not have as much of a say as men. (This means to influence contraception’s into African society it will be better to go through with the men than women) Currently opposite sex marriage is allowed but is still considered frowned upon by peers due to social interactions. However, women who are attracted to the opposite sex are often targeted for beatings or rape.


3rd Field Research Design Specs

Africa Pack Research

Design specification Required

The cost of the product

  • Low cost is required for the product to allow affordability to the clients purchasing the product, this will allow more volume in the product to come as aid.

Aesthetics

  • The consumers aim to have the product to be a frugal design to create a product that can communicate to a consumer who has limited education.

Environmentally Friendly

  • The resources used to produce this product must come from a recyclable source to allow cheaper cost in production and also allow the product to become sustainable.

Function

  • Able to preserve medication in a desert climate (hot and cold)
  • Being able to with stand temperatures of 86 degrees

Manufacturing process

  • Injection moulding suitable for mass production

Shelf life storage

  • Must be allowed to be able to be used and ready for transportation at any time

Customers

  • The aim of the project is to be aimed at the people of Zimbabwe as one of Sub-Saharans main exporters they can create a large impact on the culture aspects on the rest of the continent

Product lifespan

  • The lifespan of the product must be able to exceed the expiry date of any medication and withstand multiple environments without deterioration of the products materials

Materials

  • The materials used will be PET and PLA suitable for the injection moulding process .

Ergonomics

  • The product must be able to fit in the bottles nicely as well as the extra component fitting into the pockets better.

Shipping and transporting

  • Lowed shipping cost by using the unused space in between bottles to lower cost and allow the export of the goods to spread out far