3rd Year Field Research


HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that cause AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) This disease attacks the immune system of the host, causing a progressive failure at the end.

There are 33 million people affected with the HIV/Aids Virus and 65 percent are from Sub-Saharan Africa. One of the reasons why HIV/AIDS has become such a problem in Africa is due to the lack of contraception’s provided into the community. Other methods of HIV being contracted to people is by the sharing needles between infected users as well as unsterilized equipment used during the birthing process.




Treatment of HIV/AIDS


First steps when trying to treat HIV

You will require a few test before any medication is given to the patient, this helps regulate the potential amount the patient will require and ensure the right dosage is given to the patients to not cause any more problems needed.

These test can include:

  • Urine test
  • Test for any other potential STDS
  • Blood count / Blood History
  • Test for any other infection that may occur due to low immune system
  • Checks and test to see whether or not you are sensitive to certain medicine
  • Test to see whether you are effected by a certain type of HIV medication

Overview of the treatment required to treat HIV

HIV treatments uses a wide combination of medication in order to fight the HIV infection. This is process is called ART Antiretroviral Therapy. The ART method does not cure HIV but prevents oncoming death and creates a healthier lifestyle by making the users less infectious to others. Art is a combination of medication that’s is given to the users every day. When the HIV virus is left untreated the HIV will develop into AIDS.

There are Six Different Class of drugs given to fight the HIV virus:

  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
  • Fusion inhibitors
  • CCR5 antagonists (CCR5s)
  • Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs)


Antiretroviral HIV drug class, the NNRTIs bind to and black the HIV Reverse transcriptase (an HIV enzyme). HIV uses reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA. Blocking reverse transcriptase and reverse transcription prevents HIV from replicating.


Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) block reverse transcriptase (an HIV enzyme). HIV uses reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA (reverse transcription). Blocking reverse transcriptase and reverse transcription prevents HIV from replicating.

Protease Inhibitor (PI)

PI block protease, by blocking protease, PIs prevent new (immature) HIV from becoming a Mature virus that can infect other CD4 cells.

Fusion inhibitors

The fusion Inhibitor blocks the HIV envelope from merging with the host CD$ membrane (fusion). This prevents HIV from entering the CD4 cell.


CCR5 antagonists block the CCR5 coreceptor on the surface of the certain immune cells, such as CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4 cells). This prevents HIV from entering the cell.


Integrase strand transfer inhibitors block intergrase. HIV uses integrase to insert its viral DNA into the DNA of the host CD4 cell. Blocking integrase prevents HIV from replicating.

The six drug classes also include 25 more HIV medicines that are approved to treat HIV infection. Some HIV medicines are available in combinations (in other words two or more different HIV medicines are combined in one pill).


Choosing the Right HIV regimen

  • Whether or not the person has more than one disease
  • Possible side effects of HIV medicines
  • Potential interactions between HIV medicines or between HIV medicines and other medicines the person with HIV is taking
  • Results of drug resistance the consumer may have
  • Convenience of the regimen. Having medication have a combination of the two
  • Any issues that can make following HIV regimen difficult, Busy lifestyle
  • Cost of HIV medicines


Drug Name (Brand Name) Cost of Brand Name Cost of Generic Number of tablets Strength
Etravirine (Intelence) $1,028-$1,112 No generic available. 60 200 mg
Efavirenz (Sustiva) $863-$965 No generic available. 90 200 mg
Nevirapine (Viramune) $770-$852 $15-$267 60 200 mg
Lamivudine/Zidovudine (Combivir) $922-$994 $344-$749* 60 150 mg/300 mg
Emtricitabine and tenofovir (Truvada) $1,309-$1,411 No generic available. 30 200 mg/300 mg
Abacavir (Ziagen) $600-$619 $234-$438 60 300 mg
Fosamprenavir (Lexiva) $1,021-$1,113 No generic available. 60 700 mg
Ritonavir (Norvir) $530-$586 (Available as a capsule and tablet.) No generic available. 30 100 mg
Darunavir (Prezista) $1,279-$1,383* No generic available. 30 800 mg
Atazanavir (Reyataz) $1,288-$1,393* No generic available. 30 300 mg
Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) $3,172-$3,434 No generic available. 1 kit 90 mg (60 vials)
Maraviroc (Selzentry) $2,458-$2,660 No generic available. 120 300 mg
Raltegravir (Isentress) $1,224-$1,325* No generic available. 60 400 mg
Abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine (Triumeq) $2,237-$2,422 No generic available. 30 600 mg/50 mg/300 mg

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